English to Sign Language Translations of Assessments: Three Case Studies and Implications for Construct Validity, Stephanie Cawthon, Carrie Lou Garberoglio & Jeffrey Palmer; April 5-9, 2019
Presentation Summary: In designing accessible assessments of deaf students’ knowledge, the goal is to remove obstacles which lead to invalid interpretations of resultant test scores. One approach is to provide sign language translations of existing assessment items. In this paper we review the literature on approaches to sign language translation and describe protocols used for three different measurement translation projects.
Understanding deaf individuals who are not in the labor force: A cluster analysis. , Carrie Lou Garberoglio, Stephanie Cawthon, Jeffrey Palmer & Adam Sales; April 5-9, 2019
Presentation Summary: Deaf people are increasingly gaining access to continuing education and training opportunities after high school, yet almost half of deaf people opt out of the labor force. To better understand the characteristics of deaf people who do not participate in the labor force, a cluster analysis was conducted using data from the 2016 American Community Survey. This presentation will share the results of this cluster analysis. Findings can help researchers, policy-makers, and educators identify risk factors and design programming that takes those individual differences into account.
Educational Attainment by Deaf Students and Student Veterans with Hearing Loss, Jeffrey Palmer; April 5-9, 2019
Presentation Summary: Postsecondary education has become an increasingly important prerequisite for successful transition from military to civilian life. Since nonmilitary students with varying degrees of hearing loss attain lower levels of education than their hearing peers, this study investigates the relationship between veteran status, hearing loss, and educational attainment. This poster will share attainment data for Veterans with hearing loss and suggested barriers within the postsecondary setting.
Dr. Stephanie Cawthon’s mission is to translate research into practices that help millions of deaf Americans succeed after high school—at work, in training programs, or at a college or university.
Her 29-year career in teaching and research is dedicated to studying the different ways deaf people achieve educational success, how it leads to life satisfaction, and what schools, governments, and parents can do to ensure that students can thrive.
Dr. Cawthon was recently appointed the first deaf editor of Perspectives on Deafness, an Oxford University Press international book series on the leading research and practices with deaf people. She is a tenured professor at The University of Texas at Austin’s College of Education in the Department of Educational Psychology, with a courtesy appointment in Special Education.
An internationally-renowned expert who is in high demand as a speaker and collaborator, Dr. Cawthon’s research examines the multiple factors that affect how deaf people succeed after high school, investigates issues of equity and access in education, explores accommodations and accessible learning environments, and challenges systemic standards that may be holding some students back. Her research has been funded by nearly $25 million in federal and other grants.
She literally wrote the book on the topic. Dr. Cawthon co-authored Shifting the Dialog, Shifting the Culture: Pathways to Successful Postsecondary Outcomes for Deaf Individuals with NDC Director Carrie Lou Garberoglio, PhD, a publication that a leading journal called “an important contribution to the field.” They also co-authored Research in Deaf Education: Contexts, Challenges and Considerations in 2017.
Her first book, Accountability-Based Reforms: The Impact of Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students, won the Exceptional Book of the Year Award in 2012 from Exceptionality Education International.
Raised oral in mainstream schools, Dr. Cawthon’s own transition to college was challenging. She attempted the accommodations strategies she used in high school, then quickly realized they were inadequate in a large university setting. She went on to earn her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Psychology from Stanford University, where her initial line of research in the language development in deaf children launched her career. Dr. Cawthon received her doctorate in Educational Psychology from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 2002, where she became a systems thinker focused on educational access, equity, and attainment.
Current Affiliations and Appointments
Professor, Department of Educational Psychology | University of Texas at Austin
Board of Directors and Director of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Institute | Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of Texas at Austin
Provost’s Teaching Fellow Emeritus | University of Texas at Austin
Director of Research and Evaluation | Drama for Schools
Principal Reviewer | Journal of Educational Psychology
Editorial Board Member | Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability; Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals
Member | Student with Disabilities Assessment Advisory Task Force for the Council of Chief State School Officers; Technical Advisory Committee for the National Center on Educational Outcomes; Technical Advisory Committee for ELPA21 Assessment Consortium and CAAELP Assessment Consortium at UCLA; Advisory Committee of Assessment of English Language Learners for the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium
As a deaf person who grew up in the deaf community, Dr. Carrie Lou Garberoglio’s professional expertise is steeped in her lived experience.
A nationally-recognized educational researcher, she directs the National Deaf Center on Postsecondary Outcomes and is the principal investigator for the federally funded grant. Working in tandem with Associate Director Tia Ivanko, MA, NIC, to manage the organization, Dr. Garberoglio oversees the center’s research, community and government engagement, and outreach initiatives.
Her motivation for her work is deeply personal, and largely driven by the desire to center deaf people in decision-making that makes an impact on everyday lives. Dr. Garberoglio’s work seeks to counter commonly held narratives about deaf people that are built on a deficit perspective. She advocates for examining the deficits within systems, then changing the systems — not the people.
In her work, Dr. Garberoglio strives to reach a more nuanced understanding of the development of deaf people throughout the life cycle, particularly in the adolescent and young adult period, and how that development is significantly affected by psychosocial factors and systemic barriers. She seeks to provide the field with current and accurate data about deaf people that places outcome data within appropriate contexts, through secondary analyses of large-scale federal datasets.
Her research into the critical transition period after high school for deaf people is also the topic of Shifting the Dialog, Shifting the Culture: Pathways to Successful Postsecondary Outcomes for Deaf Individuals, the critically acclaimed book Dr. Garberoglio co-authored in 2017 with NDC Founding Director Stephanie W. Cawthon, PhD. They also co-authored Research in Deaf Education: Contexts, Challenges and Considerations in 2017 to increase research rigor in work that involves deaf communities.
As an early-career deaf scholar, she is part of the current movement of deaf academics who are stepping up to take the mic, demanding a seat at the table, and forging new paths through academia.
Dr. Garberoglio has authored over 25 scholarly publications and numerous technical and evaluation reports, and presents regularly at conferences. She is committed to increasing the accessibility of research for deaf audiences, using American Sign Language (ASL) to translate and disseminate complex academic content. She also teaches research methods and statistics coursework at the University of Northern Colorado.
As a child of deaf parents who were also educators in the deaf education system, Dr. Garberoglio’s first language was ASL, and dinner conversations revolved around teaching and school systems. She attended one of the largest state schools for the deaf in the nation. She was also mainstreamed for part of the school day from 3rd to 9th grade, where she used ASL interpreters and navigated systems that were not fully accessible in terms of social interactions — an unfortunately common experience for many deaf students in mainstream U.S. schools.
Dr. Garberoglio earned two master’s degrees, the first in Deaf Education and Deaf Studies from Lamar University, and the second in Program Evaluation from The University of Texas at Austin. She has a PhD in Educational Psychology at The University of Texas at Austin.
An avid gardener and home cook, Carrie Lou lives in Austin and enjoys reading, camping, and traveling with her two daughters and partner Lizzie.
Current Affiliations and Appointments
Project Manager | Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at the University of Texas at Austin
Instructor | Department of ASL & Interpreting Studies at the College of Education & Behavioral Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado
Evaluator | Deaf STEM Community Alliance
Associate Editor | Journal of American Sign Language and Literature
Review Board Member | Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Dr. Jeffrey Levi Palmer is a researcher. He is interested in not only the formative factors that result in the best language, literacy, and academic outcomes, but also which educational and social practices continue to elevate young deaf adults. His research examines understudied bilinguals, such as heritage bimodal bilinguals and visual-gestural unimodal bilinguals. He has taught linguistics and language acquisition to deaf postsecondary students both face-to-face and online. For more than a decade he has worked as a professional sign language interpreter (NIC, Ed:K–12) in a variety of specialized and technical settings. He is on the Test Development Committee for the Center for Assessment of Sign Language Interpretation and is vice chair of Deaf-Parented Interpreters with the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. He holds a bachelor’s degree in interdisciplinary studies with a concentration in Chinese language and culture from the Friends World College at Long Island University and obtained master’s and doctoral degrees in linguistics at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C.